The hórreo is a popular type of construction for storing corn or other agricultural products. It is made up of a wood or stone chamber, with ventilation holes in the walls to avoid humidity, which is raised on a base generally of columns, to be out of the reach of animals. The hórreos are typical of the northwest of the peninsula. There are three main groups: the Galician-Portuguese (Galicia and northern Portugal), the Asturian-Leonese (Asturias, León and Palencia) and the Pyrenean-mountain (Cantabria, Euskadi and Navarra).
In Galicia, in addition to being where they are most abundant, it is the place where there are more variations in terms of the name: more than thirty different names depending on the forms, materials or areas. To begin with, in terms of shape, they can be: round, or cabaceiro; rectangular, or cabazo; and square, or Asturian. Regarding the materials, we differentiate: interlaced rods; of wood; of stone; mixed and masonry.
As for the area, the variety of hórreos is determined more than anything by the climate. Most of them are in the provinces of A Coruña and Pontevedra. In the more mountainous areas of the interior there are none, because they are unnecessary. The greatest varieties of names occur on the coast. The most common are: cabozo in the Cantabrian Sea; hórreo in the Ártabro Arch; cabazo in Fisterra; cabaceira in the area from Carnota to Muros; piorno, palleira, canastro, caustra, canizo, on the coast of Pontevedra up to the Miño; paneira in O Morrazo.
And, just like there are many names, there are many styles. These do not correspond to a strict geographical limitation. Following the classification made by Ignacio Martínez Rodríguez, we can group several styles with similar characteristics:
Primitive or corres types. They are made of interlaced rods, like a truncated-conical basket with a thatched roof. It is generally used as an auxiliary granary. We find it especially on the slopes of the Faro and Farelo mountains, between the Ulla and the Miño.
Types of wood. With rectangular wooden chamber.
- mariñán (in the Bercés, Mero, Mandeo and Mendo basins). Small, with a narrow and high chamber and cepas (supports the width of the hórreo) of masonry. Gabled tile roof.
- type palleira or piorno (in the area of Ulla, Limia, province of Pontevedra and part of Ourense and Lugo). Small, wider and lower chamber. It has esteos (columns) of stone and a gabled tile roof with a long eaves.
- O Salnés type (between Umia and Lérez, from Caldas de Reis to Meaño). Lower chamber, wide and long, on masonry stumps. Gabled tile roof.
- bergantiñán (Bergantiños region). Wide, short and tall chamber. Masonry cepas and gabled tile roof. Types of stone. With stone chamber.
Types of stone. With stone chamber.
- Ribadeo type (on the coast between Viveiro, encompassing Lourenzá, and Vegadeo). Wide and very tall. With two or three floors depending on the function. It rests on a celeiro (support of the hórreo with walls) equal to or greater than the chamber. Shale masonry walls. Slate hipper roof. Factory ladder.
- San Pedro de Visma type (A Coruña, Arteixo, Laracha). Wide, low, big. Gabled tile roof.
- Coristanco type (Ponteceso and Carballo area, on the banks of the Anllóns river). On celeiro of masonry. Gable curved tile roof.
- Fisterra type (area that connects Ponteceso with Santa Comba and Carnota). Narrow and tall. Esteos very high on masonry plinth. Gable curved tile roof.
- Noia type (Xallas and Ulla area). Narrow and long, on low stone esteos. Curved gable tile roof.
- O Morrazo type (coastal area between the Miño and O Salnés). Narrow and long. Variable width. Low suspension. Gable curved tile roof
- Carral type (between Carral and Sigüeiro). Wide chamber, on thick and tall cepas of masonry. Gabled tile roof.
- Carballo type (coincides with the area of the brig). Very high and wide chamber, on pieces of stone plastered and whitened.
- Mondoñedo type (Cantabrian area from Ortigueira to Asturias, and inland to Mondoñedo). Similar to that of Carral, but with a hipped roof and two plastered and whitewashed masonry cepas.
- Mahía type (Santa Comba, Ordes, Palas de Reis area, Ulla river, Deza, Silleda, Caldas de Reis, Catoira, Rianxo, Negreira). Narrow and long, with low suspension, on cepas. Gabled tile roof.
- Pontevedra type (Catoira, A Estrada, Os Peares, Baños de Molgas, Limia hasta or Lindoso Portuguese). Narrow and long. Low suspension on thick square esteos. Gabled tile roof.
- O Pino type (between Tambre and Ulla) Very wide and short. High suspension. Two or three sided tile roof.
- Cabanas type (Ortigueira area, As Pontes de García Rodríguez and Eume valley up to Pontedeume). Lower and wider chamber than the mariñán. Low suspension. Slate roof with four waters.
- Vilalba type (Serra da Cova da Serpe, Serra da Loba, Eume river, Miño river). Very narrow and high small chamber, on two cepas or solid cepa. Two-sided slate roof.
- Tui type (area from the right bank of the Miño to Tui) Wide chamber. Low suspension on thick square esteos. Walls of horizontal voussoirs. Curved gable tile roof.